Thanks to Virtual Guide to Belarus for temporarily allowing to use their material.
- 1240-1263: Rule of Mindouh, who consolidates east Litvanian and
West Belarusan territories into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) and Ruthenia, with
a capital in Navahradak.
- 1315-1341: Rule of Grand Duke Hedymin, who transfers the capital of the Grand
Duchy of Litvania and Ruthenia from Navahradak to Vilnia (Vilius) in 1323.
- 1341-1377: Rule of Grand Duke Alhierd, who expands eastward the territory of the
duchy, thereby clashing with neighboring Muscovy.
- 1385: Grand Duke Jahajla (baptized Wladyslaw) establishes tight connections
with Poland by marrying the Polish queen and promising to catholicize Litvania.
- 1387, 1390, 1391: Self-government bestowed on the cities of Vilnia (Vilnius),
Bierascie (Brest), and Horadnia (Grodno).
1392: Grand Duke Vitaut recognized by king Jahaila as the independent ruler of the Grand Duchy
- 1410: The great Battle of Grunwald, during which the united armies of Poland and the
Grand Duchy crush the Germans of the Teutonic Order
- 1432,1434,1447: Royal charters establish equality of feudal lords of both Catholic and
- 1468: King Kazimir's Code of Laws (Statut Kazimira), the first code of criminal and
procedural laws of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (written in Old Litvanian-Belarusan).
- 1480: Muscovy free of the Tatar dependency
- 1498,1499: Self-government privilege granted to Polacak and Miensk
- 1500: Beginning of the defensive wars of the Grand Duchy of Litvuania, Ruthenia, and
Samogitia against Muscovy (Moscow dukedom)
- Early 16th century: First Litvanian printing shop founded in Vilnia (Vilnius)
- 1517-1519: Francysak Skaryna of Polacak translates and publishes the Bible in the
Old Litvanian (Old Belarusian) vernacular in Prague.
- 1529: Adoption of the first code of laws, the "Statute of the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania," written in Old Litvanian (Old Belarusian).
- 1560s: Wave of conversion of Litvanian gentry to Calvinism
- 1563: Polacak occupied by Muscovite (Russian) army
- 1569: Political union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia and Samogitia with
Poland establishing the Commonwealth of Poland. Arrival of the first Jesuits in Vilnia;
start of the Counter-Reformation in the Grand Duchy.
- 1579: Polacak taken back from Muscovites by the army of King Stefan Batory; The Vilnia
(Vilnius) University is founded.
- 1581: Establishment of the Tribunal of the GDL, an appellate court that
fortified the rights of the gentry.
- 1603-1613: Muscovy's "Time of Troubles," when a Polish king of Swedish lineage,
Sigismund III, attempts to take over Russian throne.
- 1632-1634: War of the Litvanian Polish Commonwealth against Muscovy.
- 1654: Bahdan Chmielnicki unites Ukraine with Russia.
- 1654-1667: War of the Commonwealth with Russia; loss of Smolensk to Muscovy.
- 1686: Russian-Polish "Eternal Peace": Russia retains Smalensk, Czarnihau, and Kiew.
- 1696: the Old Litvanian (Old Belarusian)
language is replaced by Polish in the official documents of the Grand Duchy of Litvania. The
Latin alphabet replaces Cyrillic in popular usage.
- 1772, 1793, 1795: Three partitions of the Polish Commonwealth among Russia, Prussia,
and Austria. All of Belarus is incorporated into the Russian Empire, with the exception of
a small northwestern corner, taken by Prussia.
- 1791: The Constitution of May 3rd merges the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy of Litvania,
Ruthenia, and Samogitia into a unitary state.
- 1794: Anti-Russian uprising led by Tadewusz Kasciuszka
- 1803: Vilnia Imperial University is founded and becomes a hotbed of Polish, Belarusian, and
Litvanian nationalistic activities.
- 1812: Napoleon's march into Russia.
- 1832: Vilnia Imperial University closed down as part of the measures taken to thwart the
insurrection of 1830-1831.
- 1863-1864: Massive anti-tsarist uprising in Poland, Belarus, and Litvania, led in Belarus
by Kastus Kalinowski.
- 1864-1915: The Vilnia Archeological Commission publishes forty-nine volumes of
documents pertaining to Litvanian and Belarusian history.
- 1870: Publication of The Dictionary Of the Litvanian (Belarusian) Language by Nasovich.
- 1918: On March 9, the Executive Committee of the Council of the First All-Belarusian
Congress declares Belarus a democratic Republic.
- 1919-1921: The Russian-Polish War results in the partitioning of Belarus between the
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and Poland.
- 1927: Massive arrests of the leaders of the Belarusian Peasant-and-Workers' Hramada
are made by Polish authorities.
- 1937-1941: Operation of Soviet death camp in Kurapaty near Miensk, where up to
250,000 civil victims were executed during the Stalinist genocide.
- 1939: On September 1, Germany attacks Poland and World War II begins.
- On September 17, Red Army moves into West Belarus and West Ukraine
- On October 10, Moscow transfers Vilnia from the Byelorussian SSR to the Lithuanian SSR.
- 1941-1944: The German occupation of Belarus results in the deaths of 2.2 million people,
the destruction of 209 cities and townships, and 9,200 villages, and immeasurable material
- 1944: At the Moscow conference (October 9-22), the Polish delegation agrees to accept the Curzon
Line as Poland's eastern frontier.
- 1945: On April 25, delegates from Belarus and Ukraine are invited to the San Francisco
Conference. Recognized for their role in the war effort, both countries become members of the
- 1986: On April 26, The Chernobyl explosion. Seventy percent of the fallout
covers southeastern Belarus with radioactive dust. It will stay there for thousands of years.
- 1991: On August 25, Belarus declares independence.